Overview

The Developmental Care Program centers on finding ways to accurately assess and effectively treat stress and pain responses in preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We are conducting a comprehensive program of research that includes studies which are descriptive, mechanistic and interventionist; outcome measures ranging from cellular to behavioural levels; and mothers, fathers and infants born from the earliest gestational ages to term.

Publications

Pilot Testing a Robot for Reducing Pain in Hospitalized Preterm Infants
OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Nicholas Williams and Karon MacLean and Ling Guan and Jean Paul Collet and Liisa Holsti
DOI: 10.1177/1539449218825436
04/2019

Evaluating change in virtual reality adoption for brain injury rehabilitation following knowledge translation
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology
DOI: 10.3109/17483107.2015.1111944
2017

Defining procedural distress in the NICU and what can be done about It
Neonatal Network
DOI: 10.1891/0730-0832.36.1.12
2017

A Systematic Review of the Predictive Validity of Neurobehavioral Assessments During the Preterm Period
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
DOI: 10.1080/01942638.2016.1185501
2017

Beyond Acute Pain: Understanding Chronic Pain in Infancy
Children
DOI: 10.3390/children3040026
12/2016

A Systematic Review of the Predictive Validity of Neurobehavioral Assessments During the Preterm Period.
Craciunoiu O and Holsti L
PubMed: 27314272
06/2016

Salivary Cortisol Based Early ACTH Test for Identifying Adrenal Insufficiency in Low Birth Weight Infants.
Hochwald O and Holsti L and Osiovich H
PubMed: 27299340
06/2016

Comment on the Paper by van den Bosch et al. Entitled 'Prematurity, Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Pain: Do They Affect the Developing Brain': The Impact of Subtle Messaging.
Holsti L and Zwicker JG and Grunau RE
DOI: 10.1159/000442081
PubMed: 26670662
2016

Oral glucose during targeted neonatal echocardiography: is it useful?
Lavoie PM and Stritzke A and Ting J and Jabr M and Jain A and Kwan E and Chakkarapani E and Brooks P and Brant R and McNamara PJ and Holsti L
DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308191
PubMed: 26054971
07/2015

Neonatal pain and developmental outcomes in children born preterm: a systematic review.
Valeri BO and Holsti L and Linhares MB
DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000114
PubMed: 24866853
04/2015

The development of the Pediatric Motivation Scale for rehabilitation.
Tatla SK and Jarus T and Virji-Babul N and Holsti L
DOI: 10.1177/0008417414556884
PubMed: 26281433
04/2015

Perceptions of Technology and Its Use for Therapeutic Application for Individuals With Hemiparesis: Findings From Adult and Pediatric Focus Groups
JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Melanie Y Lam and Sandy K Tatla and Keith R Lohse and Navid Shirzad and Alison M Hoens and Kimberly J Miller and Liisa Holsti and Naznin Virji-Babul and HF Machiel Van der Loos
DOI: 10.2196/rehab.3484
02/2015

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Use of Oral Glucose with or without Gentle Facilitated Tucking of Infants during Neonatal Echocardiography.
Lavoie PM and Stritzke A and Ting J and Jabr M and Jain A and Kwan E and Chakkarapani E and Brooks P and Brant R and McNamara PJ and Holsti L
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141015
PubMed: 26496361
2015

The fathers'support scale: Neonatal intensive care unit (FSS: NICU): Development and initial content validation
Journal of Neonatal Nursing
DOI: 10.1016/j.jnn.2014.09.007
2015

Therapists' perceptions of social media and video game technologies in upper limb rehabilitation.
Tatla SK and Shirzad N and Lohse KR and Virji-Babul N and Hoens AM and Holsti L and Li LC and Miller KJ and Lam MY and Van der Loos HF
DOI: 10.2196/games.3401
PubMed: 25759148
2015

Using colors to assess pain in toddlers: validation of "the rainbow pain scale"-a proof-of-principle study.
Mahon P and Holsti L and Siden H and Strahlendorf C and Turnham L and Giaschi D
DOI: 10.1177/1043454214555197
PubMed: 25416519
2015

The GestureTek virtual reality system in rehabilitation: a scoping review.
Glegg SM and Tatla SK and Holsti L
DOI: 10.3109/17483107.2013.799236
PubMed: 23713408
03/2014

The effects of motivating interventions on rehabilitation outcomes in children and youth with acquired brain injuries: a systematic review.
Tatla SK and Sauve K and Jarus T and Virji-Babul N and Holsti L
DOI: 10.3109/02699052.2014.890747
PubMed: 24661000
2014

Using virtual reality in clinical practice: A multi-site exploratory study.
Glegg SM and Holsti L and Stanton S and Hanna S and Velikonja D and Ansley B and Sartor D and Brum C
DOI: 10.3233/NRE-141152
PubMed: 25238866
2014

Evidence for outcomes of motivational rehabilitation interventions for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: an American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine systematic review.
Tatla SK and Sauve K and Virji-Babul N and Holsti L and Butler C and Van Der Loos HF
DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12147
PubMed: 23550896
07/2013

Factors influencing therapists' adoption of virtual reality for brain injury rehabilitation.
Glegg SM and Holsti L and Velikonja D and Ansley B and Brum C and Sartor D
DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2013.1506
PubMed: 23713844
05/2013

Pain in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
HajGhanbari B and Holsti L and Road JD and Darlene Reid W
DOI: 10.1016/j.rmed.2012.03.004
PubMed: 22531146
07/2012

Terms used to describe pediatric videofluoroscopic feeding studies: a Delphi survey.
St Pierre AE and Reelie BA and Dolan AR and Stokes RH and Duivestein JA and Holsti L
PubMed: 22822693
06/2012

The use of an early ACTH test to identify hypoadrenalism-related hypotension in low birth weight infants.
Hochwald O and Holsti L and Osiovich H
DOI: 10.1038/jp.2012.16
PubMed: 22402482
06/2012

Occupational therapists play an important role in managing pain in infants in neonatal intensive care units | Les ergothérapeutes jouent un rôle déterminant dans la gestion de la douleur chez les bébés dans les unités de soins intensifs en néonatalogie
Occupational Therapy Now
2012

Does breastfeeding reduce acute procedural pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit? A randomized clinical trial.
Holsti L and Oberlander TF and Brant R
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.07.022
PubMed: 22014760
11/2011

Assessing pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: moving to a 'brain-oriented' approach.
Holsti L and Grunau RE and Shany E
DOI: 10.2217/pmt.10.19
PubMed: 21874145
03/2011

Measures of knowledge and skills for evidence-based practice: a systematic review.
Glegg SM and Holsti L
DOI: 10.2182/cjot.2010.77.4.4
PubMed: 21090063
10/2010

Content validation of the infant malnutrition and feeding checklist for congenital heart disease: a tool to identify risk of malnutrition and feeding difficulties in infants with congenital heart disease.
St Pierre A and Khattra P and Johnson M and Cender L and Manzano S and Holsti L
DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2009.04.009
PubMed: 20816559
10/2010

Considerations for using sucrose to reduce procedural pain in preterm infants.
Holsti L and Grunau RE
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-2445
PubMed: 20403938
05/2010

Paediatric occupational therapy: addressing parental stress with the sense of coherence.
Stokes RH and Holsti L
DOI: 10.2182/cjot.2010.77.1.5
PubMed: 20302187
02/2010

A preventive care program for very preterm infants improves infant behavioural outcomes and decreases anxiety and depression in caregivers.
Holsti L
DOI: 10.1016/S1836-9553(10)70012-6
PubMed: 21213943
2010

Obsessional slowness: a case study.
Lam W and Wong KW and Fulks MA and Holsti L
DOI: 10.1177/000841740807500413
PubMed: 18975671
10/2008

Long-term outcome after neonatal intraparenchymal echodensities with porencephaly.
Sherlock RL and Synnes AR and Grunau RE and Holsti L and Hubber-Richard P and Johannesen D and Whitfield MF
DOI: 10.1136/adc.2006.110726
PubMed: 17704104
03/2008

Fathers' experiences in the neonatal intensive care unit: a search for control.
Arockiasamy V and Holsti L and Albersheim S
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-1005
PubMed: 18182470
02/2008

Is it painful or not? Discriminant validity of the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP) scale.
Holsti L and Grunau RE and Oberlander TF and Osiovich H
DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318158c5e5
PubMed: 18180641
01/2008

Initial validation of the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP).
Holsti L and Grunau RE
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2007.01.033
PubMed: 17382473
12/2007

Extremity movements help occupational therapists identify stress responses in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review.
Holsti L and Grunau RE
DOI: 10.1177/000841740707400306
PubMed: 17616017
06/2007

Relationships between adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol are altered during clustered nursing care in preterm infants born at extremely low gestational age.
Holsti L and Weinberg J and Whitfield MF and Grunau RE
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.08.005
PubMed: 16979857
05/2007

Long-term consequences of pain in human neonates.
Grunau RE and Holsti L and Peters JW
DOI: 10.1016/j.siny.2006.02.007
PubMed: 16632415
08/2006

Biobehavioural reactivity to pain in preterm infants: a marker of neuromotor development.
Grunau RE and Whitfield MF and Fay T and Holsti L and Oberlander T and Rogers ML
DOI: 10.1017/S0012162206001010
PubMed: 16700939
06/2006

Behavioral responses to pain are heightened after clustered care in preterm infants born between 30 and 32 weeks gestational age.
Holsti L and Grunau RE and Whifield MF and Oberlander TF and Lindh V
DOI: 10.1097/01.ajp.0000210921.10912.47
PubMed: 17057556
2006

Prior pain induces heightened motor responses during clustered care in preterm infants in the NICU.
Holsti L and Grunau RE and Oberlander TF and Whitfield MF
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2004.08.002
PubMed: 15814212
03/2005

Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU.
Grunau RE and Holsti L and Haley DW and Oberlander T and Weinberg J and Solimano A and Whitfield MF and Fitzgerald C and Yu W
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2004.10.020
PubMed: 15661436
02/2005

Specific Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program movements are associated with acute pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Holsti L and Grunau RE and Oberlander TF and Whitfield MF
DOI: 10.1542/peds.114.1.65
PubMed: 15231909
07/2004

Does prone or supine position influence pain responses in preterm infants at 32 weeks gestational age?
Grunau RE and Linhares MB and Holsti L and Oberlander TF and Whitfield MF
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200403000-00003
PubMed: 14770046
2004

Are there developmentally distinct motor indicators of pain in preterm infants?
Morison SJ and Holsti L and Grunau RE and Whitfield MF and Oberlander TF and Chan HW and Williams L
DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(03)00044-6
PubMed: 12782425
06/2003

Developmental coordination disorder in extremely low birth weight children at nine years.
Holsti L and Grunau RV and Whitfield MF
DOI: 10.1097/00004703-200202000-00002
PubMed: 11889346
02/2002

Are twitches, startles, and body movements pain indicators in extremely low birth weight infants?
Grunau RE and Holsti L and Whitfield MF and Ling E
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200003000-00007
PubMed: 10741817
03/2000

Upper extremity performance and self-care skill changes in children with spastic cerebral palsy following selective posterior rhizotomy.
Loewen P and Steinbok P and Holsti L and MacKay M
DOI: 10.1159/000028720
PubMed: 9876248
10/1998

Bedside application of the Neonatal Facial Coding System in pain assessment of premature neonates.
Grunau RE and Oberlander T and Holsti L and Whitfield MF
DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(98)00046-3
PubMed: 9718246
06/1998

Extremely premature (
Whitfield MF and Grunau RV and Holsti L
DOI: 10.1136/fn.77.2.F85
PubMed: 9377151
09/1997

Research
Honours & Awards

Canadian Child Health Clinician Scientist Program Career Award - 2005-2009

Tier 2 Canada Research Chair in Neonatal Health and Development - 2010-2020

Research Group Members

Baran Askari, Undergraduate Student
Stephanie Glegg
Michelle Lui, Research Assistant
Jessica Matwick, Research Nurse
Sasha Pavlovich, Research Coordinator