My primary interest focuses on advancing healthy development and health care among children in low resource settings, primarily East Africa and South Asia.


‘Better Together’: achieving a global professional network for childhood disability
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Hans Forssberg and Diane L. Damiano and Robert Armstrong
DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.15145

Medical education and population health—A framework in the design of a new undergraduate program
Frontiers in Public Health
Armstrong, R.W. and Mantel, M. and Walraven, G. and Atwoli, L. and Ngugi, A.K.
DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1068092

Child disability and family-centred care in East Africa: Perspectives from a workshop with stakeholders and health practitioners
African Journal of Disability
Samia, P. and Wamithi, S. and Kassam, A. and Tirkha, M. and Kija, E. and Moges, A. and Seal, A. and Rosenbaum, P. and Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.4102/AJOD.V11I0.931

Global Gaps in Training Opportunities for Pediatricians and Pediatric Subspecialists
Academic Pediatrics
Harper, B.D. and Nganga, W. and Armstrong, R. and Forsyth, K.D. and Ham, H.P. and Vincuilla, J. and Keenan, W.J. and Palfrey, J.S. and Russ, C.M.
DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2019.12.002

Where are the paediatricians? An international survey to understand the global paediatric workforce
BMJ Paediatrics Open
Harper, B.D. and Nganga, W. and Armstrong, R. and Forsyth, K.D. and Ham, H.P. and Keenan, W.J. and Russ, C.M.
DOI: 10.1136/bmjpo-2018-000397

Utilization of health services in a resourcelimited rural area in Kenya: Prevalence and associated household-level factors
Ngugi, A.K. and Agoi, F. and Mahoney, M.R. and Lakhani, A. and Mang'Ong'o, D. and Nderitu, E. and Armstrong, R. and Macfarlane, S.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172728

Population Health Science: A Core Element of Health Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
Academic Medicine
Hiatt, R.A. and Engmann, N.J. and Ahmed, M. and Amarsi, Y. and MacHaria, W.M. and MacFarlane, S.B. and Ngugi, A.K. and Rabbani, F. and Walraven, G. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001320

Prevention of congenital disorders and care of affected children: A consensus statement
JAMA Pediatrics
Darmstadt, G.L. and Howson, C.P. and Walraven, G. and Armstrong, R.W. and Blencowe, H.K. and Christianson, A.L. and Kent, A. and Malherbe, H. and Murray, J.C. and Padilla, C.D. and Walani, S.R. and Aagaard, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Amarasena, S. and Barlow-Mosha, L. and Vastani, M.A. and Nyaligu, E.A. and Awoyale, T. and Bauwens, L. and Carvalho, M. and Chellani, H. and Cosmas, G. and D'Agostino, S. and Darlison, M.W. and Devraj, S. and El Rafei, R. and Elias, M. and Ens-Dokkum, M. and Ezeaka, C.V. and Familiar-Lopez, I. and Gowans, L.J.J. and Grant, A. and Gupta, S. and Huhtinen, P. and Iretiola, F. and Jayaratne, K. and Joseph, A. and Kancherla, V. and Khera, A. and Levy-Fisch, J. and Liang, D. and Lloyd-Puryear, M. and Macharia, W. and Madeira, L. and Muburirwa, J.M. and Malasa, L.J. and Manduca, P. and Manoni, J. and Kilasi, S.M. and Miquel-Verges, F. and Mohamed, S. and Mtei, L. and Mullumba, E. and Mushema, B. and Musoke, R. and Nembhard, W. and Nguhi, M. and Nippert, I. and Njoroge, E.N. and Obondo, J.N. and Olubunmi, C.L.-A. and Alitsi, R.O. and Pachón, H. and Poortman, Y. and Powell, C. and Powell, L. and Raina, N. and Rajarajeswari, K. and Sabet, N. and Safori, H. and Kishimba, R.S. and Bayakub, A.S. and Salum, H. and Salvatory, F. and Sambala, S. and Sanseverino, M.T.V. and Frank, V.S. and Sayed-Raeisy, I. and Seya, N. and Shabani, H.K. and Shalua, A. and Therrell, B. and Tole, J. and Tusiime, C. and Weliwagamage, W.K.N. and Woods, D.L. and Wu, L.
DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0388

Effect of provision of an integrated neonatal survival kit and early cognitive stimulation package by community health workers on developmental outcomes of infants in Kwale County, Kenya: Study protocol for a cluster randomized trial
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Pell, L.G. and Bassani, D.G. and Nyaga, L. and Njagi, I. and Wanjiku, C. and Thiruchselvam, T. and Macharia, W. and Minhas, R.S. and Kitsao-Wekulo, P. and Lakhani, A. and Bhutta, Z.A. and Armstrong, R. and Morris, S.K.
DOI: 10.1186/s12884-016-1042-5

Child development, disability and global health: Opportunity and responsibility
Optimizing Treatment for Children in the Developing World
Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15750-4_26

Parenting skills and emotional availability: An RCT
Yousafzai, A.K. and Rasheed, M.A. and Rizvi, A. and Armstrong, R. and Bhutta, Z.A.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-2335

Cost effectiveness of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on early child development outcomes in Pakistan
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gowani, S. and Yousafzai, A.K. and Armstrong, R. and Bhutta, Z.A.
DOI: 10.1111/nyas.12367

Comparing contents of outcome measures in cerebral palsy using the international classification of functioning (ICF-CY): A systematic review
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology
Schiariti, V. and Klassen, A.F. and Cieza, A. and Sauve, K. and O'Donnell, M. and Armstrong, R. and Mâsse, L.C.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2013.08.001

Effect of integrated responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions in the Lady Health Worker programme in Pakistan on child development, growth, and health outcomes: A cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial
The Lancet
Yousafzai, A.K. and Rasheed, M.A. and Rizvi, A. and Armstrong, R. and Bhutta, Z.A.
DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60455-4

The role of inflammation in contrast-induced nephropathy
British Journal of Radiology
Kwasa, E.A. and Vinayak, S. and Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20130738

Toward the development of the international classification of functioning core sets for children with cerebral palsy: A global expert survey
Journal of Child Neurology
Schiariti, V. and Mâsse, L.C. and Cieza, A. and Klassen, A.F. and Sauve, K. and Armstrong, R. and O'Donnell, M.
DOI: 10.1177/0883073813475481

Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering
Garcia, P. and Armstrong, R. and Zaman, M.H.
DOI: 10.1126/science.1258782

Influence of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health and Behaviour of Immigrant Children in British Columbia
International Journal of Population Research
M. Anne George and Cherylynn Bassani and Robert W. Armstrong
DOI: 10.1155/2012/274963

Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Social Exclusion: Newcomer Immigrant Children in Canada
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Oxman-Martinez, J. and Rummens, A.J. and Moreau, J. and Choi, Y.R. and Beiser, M. and Ogilvie, L. and Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01161.x

Risks to Early Childhood Health and Development in the Postconflict Transition of Northern Uganda
International Journal of Pediatrics
Theresa A. McElroy and Stella Atim and Charles P. Larson and Robert W. Armstrong
DOI: 10.1155/2012/820290

Survey of "northern" child and maternal health research being conducted in Canada
International Journal of Circumpolar Health
George, M.H. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v70i4.17839

The Global Pediatrician: Is There Such a Person, or Can There Be?
Journal of Pediatrics
Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.01.001

Predictors of emotional problems and physical aggression among children of Hong Kong Chinese, Mainland Chinese and Filipino immigrants to Canada
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Beiser, M. and Hamilton, H. and Rummens, J.A. and Oxman-Martinez, J. and Ogilvie, L. and Humphrey, C. and Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.1007/s00127-009-0140-3

Child and youth health and health human resources
Paediatrics and Child Health
Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.1093/pch/14.5.293

Focus on the profession: Academic and clinical departments
British Columbia Medical Journal
Armstrong, R.W.

The first meta-analysis of randomized controlled surgical trials in cerebral palsy (2002)
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.00244.x

Waiting for child developmental and rehabilitation services: An overview of issues and needs
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Miller, A.R. and Armstrong, R.W. and Mâsse, L.C. and Klassen, A.F. and Shen, J. and O'Donnell, M.E.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03113.x

Global health training for pediatric residents
Pediatric Annals
Stanton, B. and Huang, C.-C. and Armstrong, R.W. and Sectish, T.C. and Palfrey, J. and Nelson, B.D. and Herlihy, J.M. and Alden, E. and Keenan, W. and Szilagyi, P.
DOI: 10.3928/00904481-20081201-11

Cerebral palsy: why doesn't our knowledge advance more quickly?
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Robert Armstrong
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2003.tb00960.x

Services for children and youth with chronic health conditions: Views of pediatricians in British Columbia
Chronic Diseases in Canada
Miller, A.R. and Recsky, M. and Ghazirad, M. and Papsdorf, M. and Armstrong, R.W.

Definition and classification of cerebral palsy
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00166.x

Cerebral Palsy
Evidence-Based Pediatrics and Child Health with CD-ROM
Scheinberg, A. and O'Donnell, M.E. and Armstrong, R. and Williams, K.
DOI: 10.1002/9780470987384.ch46

Intrathecal baclofen use in children with spasticity - A physicians'survey [1]
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Rice, J. and O'Donnell, M. and Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.1017/S0012162206212222

Global child health: An essential component of residency training
Journal of Pediatrics
Kamat, D. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.09.037

Medical education and chronic disease [4] (multiple letters)
Dubé, S. and Miller, A.R. and Recsky, M.A. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1041745

Responding to the needs of children with chronic health conditions in an era of health services reform
Miller, A.R. and Recsky, M.A. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1040019

Use of medical services by Methylphenidate-treated children in the general population
Ambulatory Pediatrics
Miller, A.R. and Brehaut, J.C. and Raina, P. and McGrail, K.M. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1367/A03-031R1.1

Country of birth and language spoken at home in relation to illicit substance use
Canadian Journal of Public Health
Chien, L.-Y. and George, M.A. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1007/bf03404998

Prescription of methylphenidate to children and youth, 1990-1996
Miller, A.R. and Lalonde, C.E. and McGrail, K.M. and Armstrong, R.W.

Evidence of the effects of intrathecal baclofen for spastic and dystonic cerebral palsy
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Butler, C. and Campbell, S. and Adams, R. and Abel, M. and Chambers, H. and Goldstein, M. and Leach, J. and Darrah, J. and Msall, M. and Edgar, T. and McLaughlin, J. and Damiano, D. and Susan Stott, N. and Samson-Fang, L. and Logan, L. and Albright, L. and Armstrong, R. and O'Donnell, M.
DOI: 10.1017/S0012162200001183

Family-centred functional therapy for children with cerebral palsy: An emerging practice model
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Law, M. and Darrah, J. and Pollock, N. and King, G. and Rosenbaum, P. and Russell, D. and Palisano, R. and Harris, S. and Armstrong, R. and Watt, J.
DOI: 10.1080/J006v18n01_06

Intrathecally administered baclofen for treatment of children with spasticity of cerebral origin
Journal of Neurosurgery
Armstrong, R.W. and Steinbok, P. and Cochrane, D.D. and Kube, S.D. and Fife, S.E. and Farrell, K.
DOI: 10.3171/jns.1997.87.3.0409

Pharmacologic interventions for management of spasticity in cerebral palsy
Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
O'Donnell, M. and Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2779(1997)3:23.0.CO;2-Z

A randomized clinical trial to compare selective posterior rhizotomy plus physiotherapy with physiotherapy alone in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Steinbok, P. and Reiner, A.M. and Beauchamp, R. and Armstrong, R.W. and Cochrane, D.D.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07407.x

The adequacy of prenatal care and incidence of low birthweight among the poor in Washington State and British Columbia.
American Journal of Public Health
S J Katz and R W Armstrong and J P LoGerfo
DOI: 10.2105/ajph.84.6.986

Parent-Professional Agreement on Diagnosis and Recommendations for Children With Developmental Disorders
children's health care
Helena, H.H. and Miller, A. and Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1207/s15326888chc2302_6

Toronto clinic's new approach [2]
Armstrong, R. and Rosenbaum, P. and Gowland, C. and King, G. and King, S. and Law, M. and Russell, D. and Willan, A. and Teasell, R.W. and Smith, K.M. and Bayley, M. and Wright, J.G. and Pape, K.E.

Upper body exercise capacity in youth with spina bifida
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Coutts, K. and McKenzie, D. and Loock, C. and Beauchamp, R. and Armstrong, R.
DOI: 10.1123/apaq.10.1.22

Children's Attitudes toward a Nonspeaking Child Using Various Augmentative and Alternative Communication Techniques
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
Blockberger, S. and Armstrong, R.W. and OConnor, A. and Freeman, R.
DOI: 10.1080/07434619312331276661

Reliability of a measure to assess outcomes of adaptive seating in children with neuromotor disabilities
Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation
Fife, S. and Roxborough, L.A. and Story, M. and Field, D. and Harris, S.R. and Armstrong, R.W.

Knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome among native Indians
Canadian Journal of Public Health
Robinson, G.C. and Armstrong, R.W. and Moczuk, I.B. and Loock, C.A.

Intrathecal baclofen and spasticity: What do we know and what do we need to know?
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Armstrong, R.W.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1992.tb11510.x

Self-Perceived Social Function among Disabled Children in Regular Classrooms
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Armstrong, R.W. and Rosenbaum, P.L. and King, S.
DOI: 10.1097/00004703-199202000-00004

Continuous Intrathecal Baclofen Treatment of Severe Spasms in Two Children with Spinal-cord Injury
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Armstrong, R.W. and Steinbok, P. and Farrell, K. and Cochrane, D. and Norman, M.G. and Kube, S.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1992.tb11509.x

Development of a clinical measure of postural control for assessment of adaptive seating in children with neuromotor disabilities
Physical Therapy
Fife, S.E. and Roxborough, L.A. and Armstrong, R.W. and Harris, S.R. and Gregson, J.L. and Field, D.
DOI: 10.1093/ptj/71.12.981

Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
King, S.M. and Rosenbaum, P. and Armstrong, R.W. and Milner, R.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1989.tb03984.x

Determinants of Children's Attitudes Toward Disability: A Review of Evidence
Children's Health Care
Rosenbaum, P.L. and Armstrong, R.W. and King, S.M.
DOI: 10.1207/s15326888chc1701_5

Parental attitudes toward children with handicaps: New perspectives with a new measures
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Rosenbaum, P.L. and Armstrong, R.W. and King, S.M.

Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Armstrong, R.W. and Rosenbaum, P.L. and King, S.M.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1987.tb02486.x

Improving attitudes toward the disabled: A randomized controlled trial of direct contact versus kids-on-the-block
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Rosenbaum, P.L. and Armstrong, R.W. and King, S.M.
DOI: 10.1097/00004703-198610000-00005

Children's attitudes toward disabled peers: A self-report measure
Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Rosenbaum, P.L. and Armstrong, R.W. and King, S.M.
DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/11.4.517

Peripheral Concentrations of Gonadotropins and Progestins During Pregnancy in Rabbits After Active Immunization Against Testosterone**Supported by Grant MT 4192 from the Medical Research Council of Canada.
Fertility and Sterility
Edward V. Younglai and Robert W. Armstrong
DOI: 10.1016/s0015-0282(16)45686-4

Adenosine triphospate inhibits LH stimulated testosteron accumulation.
IRCS journal of medical science

Morphological changes in the rabbit ovary after active immunization to testosterone
Cell and Tissue Research
R.W. Armstrong and D.J. McCallion and E.V. YoungLai
DOI: 10.1007/bf00225349

Journal of Endocrinology
DOI: 10.1677/joe.0.0790339


An Integrated Toolkit to Save Newborn Lives and Brains in Kenya
This project explores the impact of a toolkit for newborn care and/or a third trimester newborn stimulation messaging package delivered by community health workers on infant developmental outcomes at 12-months of age, compared to infants’ whose mothers received existing standard of care.

Child Disability and Family-Centered Care in East Africa
A newly established Eastern Africa Association of Child Disability (EAACD) within the International Alliance of Academies of Child Disability (IAACD) is working to promote a common global standard of practice for children with disabilities, disseminate evidence-based information, foster local networks to implement best practice and support multi-disciplinary and family-centered practice.

Academic Health Systems in Low Resource Settings
The work is exploring ways to advance the benefits of academic health systems in research, education, and clinical service within low resource settings.

Honours & Awards

Outstanding Alumni Award, Simon Fraser University

Research Group Members

Karen Boley